Rice as a cereal grain, is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in East and South Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and the West Indies. It is the grain with the second-highest worldwide production, after maize (corn). Since a large portion of maize crops are grown for purposes other than human consumption, rice is the most important grain with regards to human nutrition and caloric intake, providing more than one fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by the human species. India is the world's second largest producer of white rice, accounting for 20% of all world rice production.
There are four major categories of rice worldwide: Indica, japonica, aromatic and glutinous.[
Indica rice: Indica rice is usually grown in hot climates. The grains are long and tend to break easily. When cooked, the rice is fluffy and does not stick together. Most of the rice produced in Southern Asia, including India, Thailand, Vietnam and Southern China is Indica rice.
Japonica rice: Japanese rice or japonica, is a short-grain variety of rice which is characterized by its unique stickiness and texture. It has a softer texture than brown rice and a pleasant fragrance, yet retains the health benefits of brown rice. It is majorly grown in Japan.
Aromatic rice: It is a medium to long-grained rice. It is known for its nut-like aroma and taste. Varieties of aromatic rice include: basmati, jasmine, Texmati, Wehani, and wild pecan rice. When cooked, the grains have a light and fluffy texture.
Glutinous rice: It is also called as sticky rice, sweet rice, and waxy rice. It is a type of short-grained Asian rice that is especially sticky when cooked.